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Hi there! We're Rumble Fish - a team of world-class experts in bespoke software development. Our engineers are highly skilled in blockchain, cloud solutions, and defi/fintech development. Our strength and pride is the ability to take ownership of the entire development process and be a true partner and advisor for our customers. Our mission is to craft state-of-the-art digital products using battle-tested technologies. Try us!

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Software Development Services and Skills for your needs To deliver the highest quality of services, our experts are always gaining new skills and knowledge. That’s how we make sure our solutions follow the latest industry standards and take advantage of the most innovative technologies.
Our experienced team will take your AWS cloud solutions to the next level. AWS provides purpose-built tools to support your needs, and it is the preferred choice for any blockchain project. From the plethora of cloud tools and solutions offered by Amazon Web Services, we’ll help you choose and implement the ones that serve your business the best way possible.
If you’re in need of professional web development services, look no further! Rumble Fish's talented team has extensive experience in delivering top-tier web apps and websites with the use of battle-tested tools and technologies like React or Nest. We know just the right solutions to exceed your business requirements.
Whether you need an Android, an IOS app, or both, the Rumble Fish team is here to help you deliver the beautiful and efficient mobile product that your customers will simply love to use! We craft fast and secure mobile apps with a wow factor to help our customers grow their businesses and reach their goals quicker.
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) development requires an extensive amount of blockchain knowledge, as well as a great understanding of financial mechanisms. We’ve got both that bases covered! Our team has successfully built an impressive number of DeFi products like cryptocurrency exchanges, dApps, lending protocols, or staking platforms. Try us!
Rumble Fish engineers are experts in Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT) platform development. With our deep understanding of crypto, blockchain technology, and smart contracts protocols, we are able to take your NFT marketplace idea and craft it into a beautiful, state-of-the-art product.
Looking for a skilled team to help you build an advanced fintech platform able to compete with the biggest in the game? At Rumble Fish, we’ve got what it takes to engineer innovative financial technology systems. We offer end-to-end fintech software development, consulting, and expertise.
Our team is well-versed and experienced in various blockchain development tools and technologies. Our unique skillset allows us to be at the forefront of Web3 development services so if you’re looking for a trusted IT partner to boost your decentralized product - look no further!
Our experts provide you with knowledge, skills, and experience that elevates every project to another level. We’ll gladly take ownership of the entire process and guide you and your team through the intricacies of cutting-edge technology development.
We design sleek, intuitive, and highly effective interfaces to help you overcome your business challenges. After carefully evaluating and understanding your requirements we switch to the designing mode - the end goal is the beautiful digital solution that people love to use!
IT Services for Your Startup If you're looking for a team capable of turning your product concept into a beautiful and technologically intricate digital solution - look no further! Rumble Fish is your trusted software development partner ready to take you through the entire process of custom digital product creation - from the early stages of ideation to the post-launch support. Whether you're on a mission to build a mobile app, a Web3 product, or an advanced platform - we are here for you!
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Latest case studyA mobile app focused on delivering a daily dose of self-endorsement
A mobile app focused on delivering a daily dose of self-endorsement
Afffirmations is a popular Instagram account with over 1 million followers. It boasts a vibrant and lively community focused on self-growth, infused with humor and well-being memes. Our customer approached us with a vision to create a mobile app that would provide a space for their followers to contribute to the Instagram page and create their own content in a unique Afffirmations branding style.
Collaboration timeframe:December 2022 - June 2023
Services:mobile app development (iOS, Android), front-end development
We're trusted by global innovators and leaders.Join them!
A hybrid of a social network and a music app
The first truly decentralized stablecoin crypto on Ethereum
A private inbox, wallet, and marketplace all in one
An identity verification MVP
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How to make smart contracts upgradeable without Proxy?
By Oskar Karcz

The blockchain industry thrives on trustlessness, decentralization, and immutability. These principles are the cornerstones of its rapid growth in recent years. However, like any innovative field, blockchain technology is not without its challenges. One major challenge is the immutability of smart contracts—once deployed, they cannot be changed. But what if a smart contract contains a vulnerability that could lead to funds being lost, or if you simply want to enhance its functionality or optimize gas usage? In this article, I’ll explain the concept of Non-Proxy Upgradeability Pattern.

 To be (upgradeable) or not to be?

Trustlessness, decentralization, security. Immutability. The beauty of the blockchain. This is why this cutting-edge technology has been growing so rapidly for the last couple of years and surely there are still a lot of new ideas and concepts waiting to be discovered. But there’s no innovation without mistakes and as always new technologies can suffer from infancy problems. For sure those problems should be solved, but how can they be solved once the code is already deployed and can’t be changed (immutability, right?)? Aren’t smart contracts (self-executing programs) immutable by design? And shouldn’t they be as simple as possible? Yeah, but what if the contract is vulnerable and can lead to funds lost? Shouldn’t a bug be fixed? Or what if we simply want to improve functionality or optimize gas usage?

Welcome to the Blockchain.

 Clone vs Proxy

So many questions, so few answers? Not really! Fortunately, some Big Brains were also thinking about the Upgradeability Dilemma, and some solutions have already been found and developed. I’m not gonna present and explain all of them, but for context let’s take a look at two: the Proxy Patterns and the Clones. 

 Proxy Pattern

In this approach, a smart contract acts as a proxy (storage layer) that delegates all calls to another contract with the logic implementation (logic layer). The address of the logic implementation can be changed, enabling upgradability. The typical structure looks like this:


Clone Factory Pattern

In this method, each instance of the clone contact has an identical bytecode, so only one instance of the implementation (logic layer) needs to be deployed and all clone instances behave as proxies. This approach, often referred to as the "minimal proxy," is defined in the EIP-1167 standard.

Although the Clone Factory Pattern aims to clone contract functionality simply and cost-effectively, it can still raise questions about its "purity" since it relies on a "proxy" pattern.

Hold on, but what’s wrong with that? I assume you know what the gas is and why we need it on the Ethereum blockchain. Notably, the .transfer() and .send() functions, used for ETH transfers, come with a fixed 2300 gas stipend, which is non-adjustable.  Furthermore, the delegatecall function, fundamental to proxy patterns, incurs a gas cost of 21,000 (as msg calls in the EVM have an inherent base fee of 21,000 gas, and for proxy cases, delegatecall is treated as a transaction). As a result, if the wallet uses .send() function to send the ETH to the Proxy it is not gonna work!

Cloning constructor to the rescue!

Alright, so what can we do about this? Ladies and gentlemen, let me introduce the Non-Proxy Upgradeability Pattern! This approach enables you to deploy a contract to a specific address and later, if necessary, replace its logic while preserving the contract's state and balance. Here's how it works in a few simple steps:

  1. You need a factory that deploys contracts. This factory must have a fixed address, which can be achieved through deterministic deployment, e.g. via Hardhat extensions.

  2. The Factory has a method that deploys static bytecode which is “clone-contract constructor” (CCC). This constructor once deployed asks the deployer (msg.sender) about initial parameters via STATICCALL. To deploy the clone the CREATE2 method is used, which means the address depends only on:

    1. the deployer address - and this is a fixed factory address

    2. a random salt 

That means the address of the cloned contract depends only on the salt.

  1. The CCC uses EXTCODECOPY to load the contract logic code to the memory and finishes the entire process with RETURN, which points to the freshly cloned code.

  2. Call from the Factory contract Init() function to use the calldata (which was passed with STATICCALL from step 2) and initialize the contract-clone. 

Magic! The code was cloned without a proxy pattern!


Alright, so how can we upgrade the contract code if we don’t have a proxy? To achieve this we need two separate transactions because the contract's balance (as a result of the SELFDESTRUCT) is sent at the end of tx. So here it is:

  1. Clone-contract uses the SELFDESTRUCT opcode to clear all the contract data and sends the factory address as the contract's balance receiver.

  2. The factory finishes the upgrade by calling the finalizeUpgrade() function, which copies the new contract implementation the same way as it was done at the creation step 1 and sends all the native coin amounts received in the previous step.

And that’s it! 

OPCODES, slots, and EVM Storage

If you want to learn more, let me show you some code behind the magic explained above.

  • call templateAddress() on msg.sender and store it under storage slot 0x1234


  • copy contract's code to memory


  • return and point to the copied code


In Solidity it can be implemented like this:



The Non-Proxy Upgradeability Pattern offers an alternative path to upgrade smart contracts without relying on a proxy pattern. By addressing gas costs and enabling deterministic deployments, it opens up new possibilities for blockchain developers to enhance contract functionality and security. This approach exemplifies the ever-evolving nature of blockchain technology, where challenges lead to innovative solutions.

I really hope this blog post will help those of you struggling with creating upgradeable contracts. If you have any questions or would like to discuss the methodology - drop us a line at In the meantime, stay tuned for more coding stories!

Code Stories
Rumble Fish at Beyond Blockchain Annual Symposium 2023
By Agnieszka Dobosz

Once again we’ve partnered with the Swiss-Polish Blockchain Association to co-organize their annual Beyond Blockchain symposium. The event, this time happening in Warsaw, will take place on September 4th, 2023. The focus of this edition is the role of blockchain and AI in finance, the luxury goods market, and sports and entertainment. Rumble Fish is an official partner of the event.

Swiss-Polish Blockchain Association, which we are a member of, is known for the high quality of its conferences. The key to success lies in the exquisite lineup of speakers, thought-provoking panel discussions, and excellent networking. 

This year, the emphasis is put on blockchain and AI and its impact on finance, luxury goods, and sports and entertainment. Attendees can also count on lots of regulatory discussions which are always in high demand as we’re facing a big change in lawmakers' attitudes towards crypto and Web3. With 4 discussion panels packed with industry experts and professionals, Beyond Blockchain Annual Symposium is a must-attend event for all blockchain enthusiasts. 

Rumble Fish at Beyond Blockchain Annual Symposium

Rumble Fish will be proudly represented by our co-founder and CTO, Marek Kowalski, and Head of Growth, Sylwia Bień-Chudarek. Sylwia and Marek will be making an introduction for one of the discussion panels, which Marek will be also joining afterward. The title of the panel is Beyond the Hype: Blockchain and Digital Technology's Game-Changing Role in Sports and Entertainment. Marek will be joined by industry experts: Bartosz Błach (Fortuna 1 Liga), Mariusz Gąsiewski (Google), Artur Pszczółkowski (GG3), Monika Górska (Wardyński & Partners), and Paweł Łaskarzewski (Nomad Fulcrum). 

See you in Warsaw!

The tickets are still available here.

Full info on the event, including the details agenda is available here

Business Stories

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